Database Product Description
- Host Organism
- Oryza sativa (Rice)
- Trade Name
- Imidazolinone herbicide tolerance.
- Trait Introduction
- Chemically induced seed mutagenesis
- Proposed Use
Production for human food, livestock feed and industrial uses.
- Product Developer
- BASF Inc.
Summary of Regulatory Approvals
Summary of Introduced Genetic Elements Expand
Characteristics of Oryza sativa (Rice) Expand
Modification Method Expand
Characteristics of the Modification Expand
Environmental Safety Considerations Expand
Food and/or Feed Safety Considerations Expand
This product was not subject to regulation in any jurisdiction except Canada since the development of this herbicide-tolerant line did not employ recombinant DNA technologies. In Canada, regulatory approval was required for use in human food and livestock feed, but not for environmental release as these lines were not intended for cultivation in Canada.
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) was grown as a commercial crop in more than 100 countries with a combined harvest of 630 million metric tonn in 2006. The major producers of rice were China, India, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Viet Nam, Thailand and Myanmar. Rice is grown primarily for its grain, which is the staple food for half of the world’s population, and has many uses in the food and industrial sectors, including use in livestock feed.
Harvested rice, or rough rice, is encased by an inedible hull or husk, which is removed before milling. The hulls are utilized as fuels, mulch, abrasives and animal feed products. Brown rice is what remains after the hulls are removed. The light brown colour of brown rice is due to the presence of bran layers and the rice germ surrounding the rice kernel. Brown rice can be milled into regular white or ‘polished rice’, where white rice is distinguished by the fact that the hulls, bran layers and rice germ are removed. The bran and rice germs are high in protein and nutrients and are used in specialty foods such as rice bran oil and also in livestock feed. Both brown and white rice kernels can be parboiled and/or milled into rice flour for use in breakfast cereals, baby foods and desserts and numerous other food products. Rice kernels are also used to produce beer and rice wine.
Weeds are a significant production problem in rice cultivation. Weeds of rice producing areas, such as the United States, include red rice (Oryza spp.), barnyard grass, sprangletop, fall panicum, large crabgrass, rice flatsedge, yellow nutsedge, and smartweed. These are typically managed using a combination of cultural practices (e.g., dry vs wet tillage, using clean seed, crop rotations) and chemical controls (herbicides such as molinate and propanil).
Rice lines IMINTA 1 and IMINTA 4 were developed through chemical mutagenesis of the rice variety IRGA 417 with sodium azide to exhibit tolerance to imidazolinone containing herbicides. Imidazolinone herbicides are active against the acetolactate synthase (ALS) enzyme in plants, which catalyzes the first reaction in the biosynthesis of branched-chain amino acids. Imidazolinone inhibits the production of these essential amino acids (valine, leucine and isoleucine), resulting in a decrease in protein synthesis and the eventual death of the plant. ALS is also active in the glycolytic pathway of plant metabolism, by which sugars are broken down to produce acids and release energy.
Links to Further Information Expand
This record was last modified on Friday, March 26, 2010