GM Crop Database

Database Product Description

GT73, RT73 (MON-ØØØ73-7)
Host Organism
Brassica napus (Argentine Canola)
Trade Name
Westar Roundup Ready®
Trait
Glyphosate herbicide tolerance.
Trait Introduction
Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated plant transformation.
Proposed Use

Production for human consumption and livestock feed.

Product Developer
Monsanto Company

Summary of Regulatory Approvals

Country Food Feed Environment Notes
Australia 2000 2003
Canada 1994 1995 1995
China 2004 2004
European Union 1997 2005 View
Japan 1996 1996 1996
Korea 2003 2005
Mexico 1996 1996
New Zealand 2000
Philippines 2003 2003
Singapore 2014
Taiwan 2015
United States 1995 1995 1999 View

Introduction Expand

Canola (Brassica napus) line GT73 (synonym RT73) was developed to allow the use of glyphosate, the active ingredient in the herbicide Roundup®, as a weed control option in canola crops. Two novel genes were introduced into canola line GT73, which in combination provide field level tolerance to glyphosate. The novel plants express a glyphosate tolerant version of the enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) encoding gene isolated from Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain CP4 (CP4 EPSPS). Glyphosate specifically binds to and inactivates EPSPS, which is involved in the biosynthesis of the aromatic amino acids tyrosine, phenylalanine and tryptophan. The EPSPS enzyme is present in all plants, bacteria and fungi, but not in animals, which do not synthesize their own aromatic amino acids. The modified enzyme (CP4 EPSPS) has a reduced binding affinity for glyphosate and allows the plant to function normally in the presence of the herbicide.

The second gene codes for a modified version of glyphosate oxidase, a bacterial enzyme from Ochrobactrum anthropi strain LBAA. The gene was modified to improve the affinity of the enzyme for glyphosate and is referred to as the gox variant (goxv247). Glyphosate oxidase (GOX) accelerates the normal degradation of the herbicide glyphosate into aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) and glyoxylate. AMPA is the principal metabolite of glyphosate and is degraded by several microorganisms while glyoxylate is commonly found in plant cells and is broken down by the glyoxylic pathway for lipid metabolism.

These two enzymes, CP4 EPSPS and glyphosate oxidase, allow GT73 canola to be protected against herbicide damage when glyphosate is used for weed control in the cultivation of canola.

Summary of Introduced Genetic Elements Expand

Code Name Type Promoter, other Terminator Copies Form
CP4 epsps 5-enolpyruvyl shikimate-3-phosphate synthase HT figwort mosaic virus (FMV) 35S chloroplast transit peptide from A. thaliana EPSPS gene (CTP2) 1 Native
goxv247 glyphosate oxidoreductase HT figwort mosaic virus (FMV) 35S chloroplast transit peptide from A. thaliana SSU1A gene (CTP1) 1

Characteristics of Brassica napus (Argentine Canola) Expand

Center of Origin Reproduction Toxins Allergenicity

The species is native to India.

Canola flowers can self-pollinate, and they can also be cross-pollinated by insects and by wind.­

Brassica species can contain erucic acid and various glucosinolates, which can be toxic. However, commercial canola varieties have been bred to reduce the levels of these substances. Canola may contain elevated levels of tannins, which reduce the digestibility of seed protein, and sinapine, which is a bitter substance that can reduce the palatability of feeds made from canola meal.

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Occupational exposure to pollen and seed flour have been associated with allergic reactions in humans. There are no known allergic reactions to canola oil.

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Donor Organism Characteristics Expand

Latin Name Gene Pathogenicity
Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain CP4 CP4 epsps

Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a common soil bacterium that is responsible for causing crown gall disease in susceptible plants. There have been no reports of adverse effects on humans or animals.

Modification Method Expand

Canola line GT73 was produced by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the B. napus cultivar 'Westar'. The T-DNA region of the Ti plasmid was "disarmed" by removal of virA genes, normally associated with the pathogenicity and disease-causing properties of A. tumefaciens, and replacement with the CP4 EPSPS encoding and goxv247 genes. During transformation, the T-DNA portion of the plasmid was transferred into the plant cells and stably integrated into the plant's genome.

GT73 was produced using plasmid PV-BNGT04 and contained the CP4 EPSPS gene and the goxv247 gene. Constitutive expression of the CP4 EPSPS gene was regulated using the figwort mosaic virus 35S promoter and the 3' end of the pea rbcS E9 gene (E9 3'). The CP4 EPSPS gene was fused to a chloroplast transit peptide (CTP 2) sequence derived from the Arabidopsis thaliana to allow targeting of the newly translated EPSPS enzyme into the chloroplast, the site of aromatic amino acid biosynthesis and endogenous EPSPS and GOX activity.

Similarly expression of goxv247 gene was under control of the 35S promoter from a modified figwort mosaic virus and the 3' end of the pea rbcS E9 gene (E9 3'). Expression of the goxv247 gene was targeted to the chloroplast by the action of the N-terminal of the small subunit 1A (SSU1A) of the ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase chloroplast transit peptide of A. thaliana (CTP1).

There was no incorporation of translatable plasmid DNA sequences outside of the T-DNA region. No antibiotic resistance marker genes were introduced into GT73.

Characteristics of the Modification Expand

The Introduced DNA

Southern blot and PCR analysis were used to demonstrate that there was a single DNA insertion in line GT73 consisting of the T-DNA containing one complete copy of the CP4 EPSPS gene and a complete copy of the gox gene and their respective regulatory sequences.

The CP4 EPSPS gene encodes a protein of 47.6 KDa consisting of a single polypeptide of 455 amino acids. It was determined that once translocated to the chloroplast, the chloroplast transit signal sequence was cleaved and rapidly degraded in vivo leaving only the only newly expressed CP4 EPSPS.

The gox gene encodes a single polypeptide of 431 amino acids with a molecular mass of 46.1 KDa. Nucleotide sequencing comparing the gox variant protein with normal version determined that goxv247 differs by three amino acid substitutions and the two proteins were greater than 99% identical.

Genetic Stability of the Introduced Trait

Southern blot analysis of inserted DNA from the third generation and fifth generation demonstrated that the CP4 EPSPS and gox genes were stably transferred into the plant genome and stably inherited from parent to offspring over several generations.

The insertion site was characterized by backcrossing studies. B. napus is an amphidiploid composed of two genomes B. rapa/B. oleracea. Backcrossing studies with B. rapa were successful and suggested that the genetic insert was integrated within the B. rapa portion of the genome.

Expressed Material

The expression of both CP4 EPSPS and glyphosate oxidoreductase was detected in the leaves and seeds of transgenic GT73 canola. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) of seed and leaf tissue demonstrated that the introduced proteins were expressed in GT73 at very low levels, constituting less than 0.02% of the seed on a fresh weight basis. No detectable CP4 EPSPS or GOX protein was measured in non-transgenic control 'Westar' seed or leaf tissue from any year. In line GT73, expression of both CP4 EPSPS and GOX proteins in the seed was stable when observed in different trials. Levels of CP4 EPSPS ranged from 18 - 34 µg/g fresh weight and levels of GOX protein ranged from 108 - 193 µg/g fresh weight.

Environmental Safety Considerations Expand

Field Testing

The canola line GT73 was field tested in Canada starting in 1992, in the United States since 1995 and in Europe. Agronomic and adaptation characteristics such as vegetative vigour, overwintering capacity, days to flowering, time to maturity, seed production or yield, germination and dormancy were within the normal range of expression of characteristics in unmodified counterparts. Stress adaptation was evaluated, including resistance to major B. napus pests such as the fungal pathogen Leptosphaeria maculans (blackleg) and other pests (e.g., sclerotinia, flea beetles, diamondback moth larvae) and determined to fall within the ranges currently displayed by commercial varieties. Similarly no differences were observed for abiotic stress factors such as heat, drought and frost. The only significant difference between GT73 canola and the parental non-transformed variety was the increase in the CP4 EPSPS enzyme and GOX protein that confer tolerance to glyphosate. Overall the field data reports demonstrated that canola GT73 has no potential to pose a plant pest risk.

Outcrossing

Transgenic canola line GT73 displayed normal reproductive characteristics. B. napus plants are known to outcross up to 30% with other plants of the same species, and potentially with plants of related species B. rapa, B. juncea, B. carinata, B. nigra, Diplotaxis muralis, Raphanus raphanistrum, and Erucastrum gallicum. Previous studies have demonstrated that gene flow is most likely to occur with B. rapa.

The genes coding for glyphosate tolerance, CP4 EPSPS and goxv247 are not expected to confer an ecological advantage to potential hybrid offspring. If glyphosate tolerant individuals arose through interspecific or intergeneric hybridization, the novel trait would confer no competitive advantage to these plants unless these populations were routinely subject to herbicide treatments. This may occur in managed ecosystems where glyphosate containing herbicides are applied for broad spectrum weed control, or when used to control weeds in plant varieties developed for tolerance to glyphosate. In the event that a glyphosate tolerant plant survived, the herbicide-tolerant individual would be easily controlled using mechanical and other available chemical means.

Weediness Potential

Field studies on weediness potential, such invasiveness and survival characteristics, comparing GT73 canola to non-transgenic counterparts determined that the transgenic lines were not different from their counterparts in this respect. Studies on fitness characteristics such as germination, seed production, pest and disease resistance, response to abiotic factors and sensitivity to herbicides other than glyphosate, demonstrated that there was no increase in weediness potential for canola line GT73. It was determined that glyphosate tolerance did not confer a competitive advantage to GT73 canola over non-transgenic varieties since the herbicide resistance trait did not confer any pest resistance, alter reproductive biology or change any physiology related to survival. It was determined that weed management control would not be affected, since glyphosate tolerant B. napus volunteer plants were shown to be easily managed using alternative herbicides with different modes of action. It was concluded that GT73 canola had no altered weed or invasiveness potential compared to currently commercialized B. napus varieties.

Secondary and Non-Target Adverse Effects

It was determined that genetically modified canola line GT73 did not have a significant adverse impact on organisms beneficial to plants or agriculture, nontarget organisms, and was not expected to impact on threatened or endangered species. The novel proteins CP4 EPSPS and GOX expressed in GT73 did not result in altered toxicity or allergenicity properties as previously determined from studies using simulated digestive fluids, acute toxicity studies in mice, and amino acid sequence homology studies.

Plant residue studies were conducted to determine the effect of residues from GT73 on the agronomic performance of succeeding crops of barley and peas. No significant differences in either plant counts or grain yield were identified between field plots where GT73 and the non-modified counterpart 'Westar' had been previously grown.

Impact on Biodiversity

The transgenic canola line GT73 has no novel phenotypic characteristics which would extend the use beyond the current geographic range of canola/rapeseed production. Since outcross species are only found in disturbed habitats, transfer of novel traits would not have an impact on unmanaged environments. Studies have demonstrated that GT73 was not invasive of natural habitats, and that it was not more competitive than its counterparts, both in natural and managed ecosystems. It was determined that the relative impact on biodiversity of GT73 was equivalent to that of currently commercialized canola lines.

Food and/or Feed Safety Considerations Expand

Dietary Exposure

The human consumption of canola products is limited to the refined oil. Typically, canola oil is used by itself as a salad oil or cooking oil, or blended with other vegetable oils in the manufacture of margarine, shortening, salad oil and cooking oils. Refined edible canola oil consists of purified triglycerides (96-97%) and does not contain any detectable protein, hence no amounts of CP4 EPSPS or GOX proteins were detected in the refined oil of GT73 canola. The genetic modification of GT73 canola will not result in any change in the consumption pattern for this product. As the introduced gene products were not detectable in the refined oil produced from transgenic canola, there is little or no anticipated human exposure to these proteins

Nutritional Data

The analysis of nutrients from transgenic GT73 canola and non-transgenic canola did not reveal any significant differences in the levels of crude protein, crude fat, crude fibre, ash and gross energy in either whole seed or processed meal. The fatty acid composition of oils and levels of the shikimate pathway aromatic amino acids phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan extracted from both transgenic GT73 and non-transgenic canola was statistically the same and, in the case of fatty acids, within the normal range for canola oil. These results collectively demonstrated that the introduction of the novel genes in GT73 should not result in any secondary effects impacting on composition or nutritional quality. Furthermore, the transgenic line GT73 meets the standards for canola oil in Canada of containing less than 2% erucic acid and less than 30 micromoles/g glucosinolates in the oil-free meal. It was determined that the consumption of refined oil from GT73 would have no significant impact on the nutritional quality of the food supply in the United States and Canada.

Several animal feeding studies were conducted to demonstrate the wholesomeness of canola meal. Canola meal is used only for animal feed and is not considered a human food fraction. The feeding studies were conducted to establish the nutritional adequacy of canola meal for animal feeds and represented a worst case scenario in terms of canola consumption by humans. These studies included a four-week rat study on processed and unprocessed meal, a ten-week trout study on processed meal and a five-day quail (Northern Bobwhite) study on unprocessed meal. The studies all supported the safety of meal from glyphosate-tolerant canola as a component in animal feed.

The rat feeding study examined six week-old Sprague-Dewley rats (10/sex/group) fed either 0, 5 or 15% w/w ground (unprocessed) and processed (toasted and defatted) glyphosate-tolerant canola (GT73 and GT200) and 'Westar' canola meal and a diet control (commercial rodent chow with no added canola meal). The study determined that rats fed on diets with unprocessed canola seed had relative liver and kidney weights 5 - 20% greater compared to the diet controls. However, there were no differences in absolute or relative organ weights between the glyphosate-tolerant canola and parental line groups. When fed processed canola meal, there were no meaningful differences observed in body weights and body weight gains between groups fed processed glyphosate-tolerant canola meal, parental line canola meal and a control diet. Liver weights, however, increased approximately 12-16% for both sexes fed 15% GT73 meal. The increase in liver weight was attributed to a higher level of alkyl glucosinolate toxicants in the glyphosate-tolerant canola line GT73 which was 4 g/kg compared to 1.8 g/kg for the parental line. The higher level of glucosinolates present in glyphosate-tolerant canola was not attributed to the genetic modification.

The quail feeding study examined thirty northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) chicks fed diets for five days and observed for a further three days. Treatment groups were fed a control diet, glyphosate-tolerant canola (both line GT73 and GT200) or the parental line 'Westar', where canola was incorporated at a rate of 20% of the total weight of the diet. The study did not find any significant effects on body weight or feed consumption between birds in the control or treatment groups. There were no mortalities or overt signs of toxicity in either treatment or control groups.
Similarly a trout feeding study examined triplicate groups of 15 fish rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed canola meal at 0, 5, 10, 15 or 20% weight of the dry diet for 10 weeks (i.e., 45 fish/treatment).There was statistical overlap in weight gain of fish fed each dietary treatment and no differences were detected between glyphosate-tolerant canola (both line GT73 and GT200) diets and controls. Fish fed the glyphosate-tolerant canola did not exhibit any adverse effects.

Toxicity

It was determined that there were no toxicity or allergenicity concerns with GT73, since refined canola oil is the only product for human consumption and does not contain any detectable amount of protein. The absence of toxicity was further demonstrated by examining the amino aid sequence homology and the physiochemical characteristics of the CP4 EPSPS and GOX proteins, and acute toxicity study in mice.

The deduced amino acid sequences of both the CP4 EPSPS and GOX proteins were compared to the amino acid sequences of 1935 known protein toxins. No significant similarities were found other than would be expected given that certain functional domains are generally conserved between proteins.

The CP4 EPSPS enzyme belongs to the same family of EPSPS enzymes that occur in plants, fungi and bacteria. The EPSPS proteins are naturally present in foods derived from plants and microbes and have no history of being toxic or allergenic. Similarly, the gox gene was sourced from a common soil bacterium, which has no history of pathogenicity. The GOX enzyme degrades glyphosate and experiments demonstrated that the enzyme displayed a narrow substrate specificity, and appeared not to have any secondary effects on other plant specific pathways.

The acute oral toxicity of CP4 EPSPS, GOX and GOXv247 proteins, was studied in groups of ten CD-1 mice/sex in order to directly assess the potential for toxicity associated with these proteins. Based on previously assessed studies, there were no adverse effects or mortalities noted in mice administered CP4 EPSPS protein by gavage at doses up to 572 mg/kg. Similarly, no adverse effects were observed in mice administered the GOX protein by gavage at doses up to 100 and 104 mg/kg for GOX and GOXv247 respectively. The doses were well above the level of expression of the proteins found in glyphosate-tolerant canola plants, estimated to be a 1300-fold increase of CP4 EPSPS and 5000-fold increase of GOX. Clinical observations observed up to 9 days after dosing showed no signs of toxicity (i.e., no adverse effects for either protein on body weight, food consumption, survival, or gross pathology).

Allergenicity

The possibility of exposure to CP4 EPSPS and GOX is significantly limited by the combined facts that these proteins are present at low levels in leaf tissue and are absent in refined oil. The low potential for allergenicity was further demonstrated by examining the amino aid sequence homology and a study on the digestibility of the CP4 EPSPS and GOX proteins.

The amino acid sequence of the CP4 EPSPS and GOX proteins were compared to the amino acid sequences of 219 known allergens present in public domain databases (e.g., GenBank, EMBL, Swissprot, PIR). No significant similarities (i.e. a sequence of more than 8 consecutive amino acids) were found with any of these known allergens.
The study of the digestibility of both proteins in model digestion systems was done in vitro using simulated gastric fluid (SGF) and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) as mammalian digestion models. The exposure of CP4 EPSPS and GOX proteins to SGF and SIF was conducted over a series of timed incubations at 37°C. The products of the digestion were analyzed using gel electrophoresis, Western blot analysis and enzymatic activity assays. From the simulated digestion experiments and Western blot analyses, the CP4 EPSPS protein had a half-life of less than 15 seconds in the gastric system and 10 minutes in the intestinal system. The GOX protein had a half-life of less than 30 seconds in the intestinal system as determined by Western blot analyses. In summary, both the CP4 EPSPS and GOX proteins were digested by proteases present in the mammalian digestive system, suggesting that they would not survive peptic and tryptic digestion or the acidic conditions of the human digestive system.

Abstract Collapse

Argentine or oilseed rape (Brassica napus) was grown as a commercial crop in over 50 countries, with a combined harvest of 48.9 million metric tonnes in 2006. The major producers of rapeseed are China, Canada, India, Germany, France, the United Kingdom and Australia. Canola is a genetic variation of B. napus that was developed through conventional breeding to contain low levels of the natural rapeseed toxins, glucosinolate and erucic acid. Canola is grown for its seed, which represents a major source of edible vegetable oil and is also used in livestock feeds.

The only food use of canola is as a refined oil. Typically, canola oil is used by itself as a salad oil or cooking oil, or blended with other vegetable oils in the manufacture of margarine, shortenings, cooking and salad oils. Canola meal, a byproduct of the oil production process, is added to livestock feed rations. An increasing amount of oil is being used for biodiesel production, especially in Europe.

The removal of weeds early in the growing season is extremely important in canola production. Young canola seedlings are not very competitive and early weed pressure has detrimental effects on final yield. Precautions such as preplant tillage or herbicide application are common approaches for reducing weed competition. Once established, canola forms a dense canopy and is very competitive, making weed control less of a concern.

At present, it is expensive, but possible, to control annual grassy weeds (wild oats, volunteer cereals), perennial weeds (Canada thistle, perennial sow thistle, quackgrass), and certain annual broadleaf weeds in canola. The broadleaves are the most difficult to control because there are few herbicide options available. Many producers will use as many as four herbicides per year in an effort to control weeds.

Traditionally, it has been difficult to manage weeds in canola rotations because of the need to use Group 1 herbicides (Assure®, Fusion®, Poast®, Select®, Venture DG®) that are also commonly used to control weeds in flax, wheat and other cereals. Growers favour these herbicides because they are easy to work with, are extremely effective, and may be applied over a period of time. However, the constant use of Group 1 herbicides has placed large acreages of cultivated land at high risk of developing Group 1 weed resistance. The establishment of several herbicide-tolerant weed populations demonstrates this problem.

The herbicide-tolerant canola line GT73 (synonym RT73) was developed to allow for the use of glyphosate, the active ingredient in the herbicide Roundup®, as a weed control option. In order to obtain field tolerance to glyphosate herbicide, two genes, CP4 EPSPS and goxv247, were introduced into B. napus cv. Westar by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation

The EPSPS gene codes for the enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) that is present in all plants, bacteria and fungi. The EPSPS gene put into GT73 was isolated from strain CP4 of the common soil bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens and is a glyphosate tolerant form of EPSPS. The EPSPS enzyme is part of an important biochemical pathway in plants called the shikimate pathway, which is involved in the production of aromatic amino acids and other aromatic compounds. When conventional canola plants are treated with glyphosate, the plants cannot produce the aromatic amino acids needed to grow and survive. EPSPS is not present in mammals, birds or aquatic life forms, which do not synthesize their own aromatic amino acids. For this reason, glyphosate has little toxicity to these organisms. The EPSPS enzyme is naturally present in foods derived from plant and microbial sources.

The canola line GT73 contains a second gene that codes for a modified version of glyphosate oxidase (GOX) enzyme that is ubiquitous in nature. The goxv247 gene inserted into GT73 was isolated from strain LBAA of the bacterium Ochrobactrum anthropi. Glyphosate oxidase (GOX) enzyme accelerates the normal breakdown of the herbicide glyphosate into two non-toxic compounds, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) and glyoxylate. AMPA is the principal breakdown product of glyphosate and is degraded by several microorganisms, while glyoxylate is commonly found in plant cells and is broken down by the glyoxylic pathway for lipid metabolism.

GT73 has been tested in field trials in Canada since 1992 and the United States since 1995. Agronomic and adaptation characteristics such as germination, vegetative vigour, overwintering capacity, seed production (yield), agronomic characteristics (such as time to flowering, maturity) and disease and insect resistance were all found to be within the normal range when compared to conventional canola. GT73 did not pose a plant pest risk, negatively affect beneficial or nontarget organisms, exhibit enhanced weediness potential, and was not expected to impact on threatened or endangered species.

B. napus may outcross (up to 30% of the time) with plants of the same species, and potentially with plants of related species B. rapa, B. juncea, B. carinata, B. nigra, Diplotaxis muralis, Raphanus raphanistrum, and Erucastrum gallicum. Previous studies have demonstrated that cross breeding is most likely to occur with B. rapa. Because of the ability of canola to outcross with related plants, the formation of glyphosate tolerant hybrids is possible. However, the glyphosate-tolerance trait is not expected to provide a competitive advantage to hybrid plants unless grown in managed environments routinely subjected to glyphosate applications. In the event that a glyphosate tolerant hybrid survived, the herbicide-tolerant individual could be easily controlled using mechanical and/or other available chemical means.

The human consumption of canola products is limited to the purified oil. Refined edible canola oil consists of purified triglycerides (96-97%) and does not contain any detectable protein, hence no amounts of CP4 EPSPS or GOX proteins were detected in the refined oil of GT73 canola. The fatty acid composition of GT73 was within the normal range for canola oil. GT73 contained less than 2% erucic acid and less than 30 micromoles/g glucosinolates in the oil-free meal, meeting published standards for canola oil.

The livestock feed safety of GT73 was established based on several standard criteria. The analysis of nutrients from GT73 and non-transgenic canola did not reveal any significant differences in the levels of crude protein, crude fat, crude fibre, ash and gross energy in either whole seed or processed meal. Levels of the shikimate pathway aromatic amino acids phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan extracted from both transgenic GT73 and non-transgenic canola were statistically the same. These results demonstrated that the introduction of the novel genes in GT73 do not result in any secondary effects impacting on composition or nutritional quality.

Animal feeding studies included a four-week rat study on processed and unprocessed meal, a ten-week trout study on processed meal, and a five-day quail study on unprocessed meal. The studies all supported the wholesomeness of meal from glyphosate-tolerant canola as a component in animal feed.

It was determined that there were no toxicity and allergenicity concerns with GT73. There is no dietary exposure to CP4 EPSPS and GOX since these proteins are not present in the refined canola oil consumed by humans. Furthermore, the structure and function of CP4 EPSPS protein was determined to be similar to the same enzyme naturally present in foods and livestock feeds. Neither CP4 EPSPS nor GOX were found to have any amino acid sequence similarities with known toxins or allergens, and there are no known reports of toxicity or allergenicity of CP4 EPSPS or GOX proteins from plants, bacteria and fungi. Direct laboratory studies of the CP4 EPSPS and GOX proteins provided further evidence supporting the lack of toxicity or allergenicity concerns with GT73.

Links to Further Information Expand

Australia New Zealand Food Authority Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Plant Biotechnology Office European Commission European Commission: Community Register of GM Food and Feed European Food Safety Authority Japanese Biosafety Clearing House, Ministry of Environment Monsanto Company Office of Food Biotechnology, Health Canada Office of the Gene Technology Regulator Philippines Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service US Code of Federal Regulations Notice USDA-APHIS Environmental Assessment

This record was last modified on Monday, August 22, 2016